Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative aerobic bacterium found only in the xylem tissue of infected plants (Wells et a/., 1987; Davis, Whitcomb and Gillaspie, 1981), has recently been named as the causal agent of Pierce’s disease (PD).
PD was first described in 1892 in southern California by N.B. Pierce, after whom it was named. PD has been held responsible for the destruction of the once-extensive grape plantings in that area. It is widespread throughout areas of the Western Hemisphere with mild winter temperatures, including all of the southern United States from California to Florida. It limits the cultivation of Vitis vinifera in many of these areas. Since the development of techniques for cultivation and serological detection of the pathogen have facilitated identification of the causal agents Chile, Costa Rica Mexico and Venezuela have been added to the list of countries in which PD occurs. Reports of infection outside the Americas have recently been made (Boubals, 1989).
Pierce’s disease (PD) was discovered in 1892 by Newton B. Pierce (1856–1916; California’s first professional plant pathologist) on grapes in California near Anaheim, where it was known as “Anaheim disease”. The disease is endemic in northern California, being spread by the blue-green sharpshooter, which attacks only grapevines adjacent to riparian habitats. It became a real threat to California’s wine industry when the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), native to the southeast United States, was discovered in the Temecula Valley in California in 1996. The GWSS spreads PD much more extensively than other vectors.
引用元：Xylella fastidiosa – Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xylella_fastidiosa